In early times, people searched for differences in others across borders, believing they were superior and more evolved. Edward Tylor, who believed the advancing civilizations were evolving to become like white Europeans shows us how many Europeans tried to view others. There is no genetic marker to determine differences between race, as there is no set definition for defining race. However, physical characteristics can still be seen, such as skin, eye or hair color that people use to try to identify differences between themselves and others. These differences tend to cause separation and discrimination in the population. The video “Race: The Power of an Illusion, Episode 1, Part 1” has an interview with young athletes on their opinions between physical capabilities between blacks and whites in running, and they agree that certain populations have a genetic advantage. The variations we see in people, such as skin color or appearances are caused by mutations, natural selection, and genetic drift. These differences can cause divisions between people, and in turn, create boundaries. In lecture 2.1 “The Production of Difference”, The Great Chain of Being and the Colonial other describes the hierarchy that many Christians believed to be true. God was the highest of all authorities, then Angels, then Various Celestial beings, and then Man. Under man was everything else, and man ruled over all else. Missionaries were sent to other countries to spread Christianity, and to make others conform with the same beliefs without trying to understand their culture themselves. People started to arbitrarily classify race with phenotype, with environmental adaptations such as skin color. The attempt to classify races were used to mistreat others, from lecture 2.2, we learned that people in the 18th and 19th century saw black people as “less than human”. Race was used to define citizenship and your standing in the community. Christen Smith’s article “Blackness, Citizenship, and the Transnational Vertigo of Violence in the Americas” describe the dangers of being black, particularly in Brazil. Most deaths caused by the police are registered as “death caused by resisting arrest” according to Smith. Black people are three times more likely to be killed in Brazil than white people. The belief that blacks are less than human and that they are inferior has caused some to justify their use of violence against black suspects. Differences in treatment of people can be seen with racial profiling from police and in turn cause a separation between groups. In some earlier times, race justified social inequalities as natural. However, according to PBS’s “Sorting people by Race”, in Ancient societies, people were not categorized by physical differences but by religion, status, class, and language. Race is a powerful idea that has given many opportunities and resources to whites, and often times less for everyone else. I would ask whether the physical capabilities of different groups of people be caused by their environment or is there no other explanation, such as in sports where black people are often the fastest in track and field. Why, in ancient times, did they choose to categorize, instead by physical differences but with religion, status, class and language? Were they more advanced and less judging?