All over the world different forms of exchange exist. Starting with our own country, the United States practices a regulated market economy. Somewhat like a free market economy which price of goods and services are determined by supply and demand, the US economy can be regulated in some parts by the government in order to ensure fair prices are maintained and monopolies are prevented. As it was stated in the notes, underneath the surface economy, there exist shadow economies that work without government influence. These economies, ie the “Black Market”, are often trading and selling illegal goods and services. Another form of shadow economy is the illegal drug market. As mentioned in Philippe Bourgois’ “Poverty at Work”, people in lower economic areas turn to selling and distributing drugs as it is, despite the risk, more profitable for them than if they were to seek out legitimate sources of employment. There is in fact sometimes a negative stigma against “actual” jobs in some of these areas where illegal activity is common. “As a crack dealer, Ray no longer has to confront this kind of confusing humiliation. Instead, he can condemn his ‘successful’ neighbors who work downtown for being ashamed of who they were born to be. ” (Bourgois 123). Here it is apparent that the lucrative outcome of selling drugs has created an ideal that it is an honorable and respected job in these groups. This, while not a healthy thought process, is just how people in rougher economic areas go about making a living when they have not procured or learned any skill they can market. Throughout the course of history labor has evolved into a form of exchange. In today’s society, a person trades their time and labor for money, which they in turn exchange for goods or other services they may require. For many people in modern day, their labor is the only thing they have to exchange, fewer and fewer people are making or producing their own goods to sell, so they now instead sell their labor and time. Today’s culture in America contains several forms of subsistence strategies. Most obvious being industrial, most civilized countries today have become at least somewhat industrialized. However, like the United States, it is not the subsistence strategy practised. Industrialized versions of agriculturalism and pastoralism are contained within these large economies. Despite much of the world moving towards industrialized forms of economies, there are still other smaller societies that practice the other forms. Small tribes in harsher climate areas live off the land through hunting and gathering for example the inuit. The inuit live mostly off of their hunting and whaling, and may do some amount of trading and bartering in between tribes. Another form of distribution that is becoming more prevalent in today’s economy is reciprocating exchange. In America, sites such as craigslist and etsy where there is more person to person trading and selling are becoming popular. People no longer have a use for something or have built a niche product that they want to sell, so these websites have come up that allow people to practise and profit off of their craft.