Shan.L-Week 5-Systems of Exchange

A large number of rural labor in China implements the non-agricultural, effectively promote the process of in China’s modernization construction. But, at the same time, there are still some problems need to be solved. Today we published about rural labor transfer, and from these developed countries in the process of the transfer, it can be seen that China’s national conditions and they are very different, but we can gain some enlightenment from the experience abroad.

English: mandatory transfer

The process of rural non-agricultural population, as started in 11-12 th-century large-scale rural labor transfer. This time the main targets of migration is the poor. In the 15 to 17 century, Britain was made the second wave of Labour of rapid changes to the city. This time the main targets of migration is a merchant, craftsman and young women. However, the labor mobility is the most stable, the largest period from the start of the industrial revolution in the second half of the 18th century.

Before the industrial revolution in the 1760 s, the British agriculture population still accounted for more than 80% of the total population, and to the middle of the 19th century after the industrial revolution, Britain’s agricultural population fell sharply to 25% of the population, and this is the direct result of enclosure movement. So, from the perspective of the mode of transfer, the rural non-agricultural population mainly chose represented by enclosure movement of violence as the core content of the compulsory transfer mode. Britain was the world’s largest colonial countries, therefore, colonies has become one of the UK’s rural surplus labor force is mainly defined.

The United States: free migration

Non-agriculturalization of rural population in the United States is a predominantly free migration path. Before 1870, the United States is a predominantly agricultural country, three quarters of the population lives in rural areas. After 1870, the British migrants moved to the United States, the U.S. began to electric power, steel and other leading industry of the industrial revolution, attracted the flow of rural labor force to cities, further accelerating the pace of urbanization.

The end of the 19th century in the United States in the mass flow of the transfer of rural population into the city. In 1920, the city’s population increased from 1870 in 9.9 million to 54.3 million people, the level of urbanization reached 51.2%, the urbanization has been basically achieved.

From the time, the American from the transition of the rural society to urban society in just 50 years. Such a short time to complete the transformation of social structure, social organization and management means could not have been changed accordingly change, leading to a large number of such as traffic congestion and housing shortage, social stability and the crime rate rising and city disease, which has promoted the process of suburbanization and urbanization in the United States.

Japan: by leaps and bounds

In 1947, the Japanese rural employment population proportion of 54.2% of total employment. Since then, with the high-speed development of the Japanese economy, Japan’s rural employment population proportion of total employment fell sharply, to 40.2% in 1955 and 1975 was 13.9%, 5.2% in 1998. The Japanese government in view of its characteristic, has carried on the effective intervention for the rural surplus labor transfer, walked out of a different from Europe and the United States “jump transfer” and “rural non-agricultural sectors” of combining the road.


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