“Exchange” is what we would experience everyday, there are many different types of exchanges for different society, distribution part of exchange including reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange. These exchanges change and develop as time goes by, to fit in different types of society and age.
First of course if the reciprocity, or the reciprocal exchange, I assume that is the very first type of exchange that most of the society used, it’s a direct exchange between goods and services at the same value, not currency as a medium since people didn’t realized the importance of currency. Reciprocity happens between two or more equal status entities, usually, each entities who attend in the exchange give what they don’t need but abundant of to get what they need, an good example will be the Kula Ring. The process of goods moving from one side to another is called the “ generalized exchange”
The next type of exchange would be redistribution, which goods are all collected by central authority and re-give to people following special rules. This types of exchange is always used during hard time like after wars or recessions. If you came to China in around 1960s, you would find that you can’t buy things using just money, because China was experiencing a hard time during that period because of recession, so the government was issuing special tickets, whatever you want to buy you have to have that kind of ticket, if you want to buy meat you need money and meat tickets, if you want to buy cloth to make shirt you need money and cloth tickets (people make their own clothes at that time), almost everything needs tickets, even you earn ten millions a month, you can’t buy anything because you don’t have ticket. And those tickets are given by government to each family based on the number of family members, each kinds of ticket are limited to maintain the basic level of living, and special tickets like glass ticket need to be applied with proves like “my old window just broke”or something like that. I considered it’s a form of redistribution, the government gathered nearly all the productions and re-allocated to each person limited to make sure that each individuals have enough to live, because the resources are so rare that if rich people just use money to buy whatever they want, other people will die of starving.
The last one would be the market exchange, it’s the exchange of good and services for money at price determined by supply and demand, it’s the most common type of exchange in nowadays’ world. That’s the time that currency appears, each goods start to have a comparative fixed value based on the supply and demand, which makes it more convenience for people to exchange. A person’s labor play an particularly important role in this type of exchange because now it can be directly valued with money, for example, a hand-made shoes is always expensive, because of the labor it takes to make a pair of hand-make shoes is much more than machine-made because it has higher cost at labor and time.