My sequence for the vessels, considering the information provided, is vessel A, vessel C, vessel G, vessel B, vessel F, vessel I, vessel J, vessel E, vessel D, vessel K, vessel H, and vessel L. The most useful information for determining the sequence was the spout and artwork descriptions. A pattern began to emerge when I looked at how the spouts changed from short, massive, conical spouts to tall, straight sided, narrow spouts and how the artwork on the vessels changed from applique and punctate to bands of red paint.
One) Vessel E seems out of place when compared to the other vessels. It has some features that link it to other vessels but it also has some characteristics that are unique to it alone. Vessel E is the only one whose body profile is described and it has the least information to connect it to the other vessels.
Two) I would account for the difference in Vessel E by suggesting that it was imported. The individual who was buried with vessel E was a wealthy merchant who brought the vessel with them when they returned from a trading trip. Another possibility is that the person was a warlord or soldier who captured the vessel in war and held it as a prized trophy. Another possibility would be that the person who was buried with it was from an area where that style of pottery was common and they brought it with them when they came to live in the new location.
Three) If my sequence is correct then vessel E would fit between vessel J and vessel D. Vessel J is the first to have a straight sided spout which vessel E also has as well as the rounded bottom. Vessel E and vessel D have much more in common. Along with the tall, straight sided spout both have narrow spouts, a trait that only vessel H shares with them. Vessels D and E are also the only two vessels with triangular stirrups. Based off of these characteristics I would put it between vessel J and vessel D.
Four) Compared with the cultural sequence of problem one I would say that the two line up pretty well. Vessel A has traits similar to those found in stratum Q and the pottery fragments in the other strata show similar characteristics to the vessels as both become newer. Some of the strata from problem one have more colorful pottery that is not seen in problem two so those layers would have to be excluded but the pottery fragments in stratum B are similar to vessel L which fits with my sequence.