According to the CIA, Afghanistan has the highest infant mortality rate of 121.63 deaths per 1,000 live births. The infant mortality rate included infants that were under the age of one year old. In addition, Afghanistan is among the countries with the lowest life expectancy, which is 50 years old. The high infant mortality rate may be due to various factors including access to health care, sanitation, economy and infectious diseases. The citizens of Afghanistan have limited access to health care in Afghanistan, which may be the cause of the high infant mortality rate. In 2009, Afghanistan physician density is .21 physicians for every 1,000 citizens, which is lowest among all of the countries. Also, the amount of hospital beds is very low in Afghanistan. Therefore, most of the women may not have had a physician deliver their infants, which could have lead to birth complications and later infant deaths. Moreover, infants are very susceptible to various infections because their immune system is very weak and the lack of access to health care may be the cause of the high infant mortality rate. Some of the infectious diseases that affect Afghanistan citizens are bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever. In addition, Afghanistan placed at number ten for children under five years old suffering from malnutrition, which may be the cause of infant deaths.
I was not able to find a anthropologist studying infant mortality in Afghanistan, but the United States is providing programs and resources to decrease the infant mortality rate in Afghanistan. UNICEF provides training programs for physicians, nurses, and midwives to improve the quality of their health care. The main goal was to increase the number of skilled birth attendants to improve maternal and child health. Moreover, the UNICEF workers went into the community to counsel pregnant women on reproductive health and hygiene.
Sarah Crowe. UNICEF aims to reduce the rates of infant and maternal mortality in Afghanistan. http://www.unicef.org/mdg/afghanistan_59870.html
Central Agency Intelligence. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/