The country I have chosen to study and write about for the duration of this course is Ethiopia. Ethiopia is located in Eastern Africa, also known as the horn of Africa, and as of 2012, has a population of approximately 91,728 people and a population annual growth rate of 2.9% according to UNICEF demographic indicators. Life expectancy in Ethiopia from 1970 to 2012 rose from about 42.9 years to 63 years, which is a significant difference, however is still very low to me. The birth rate from the same time frame decreased from 48.1 to 33.5 and death rate dropped from 21.3 to 7.8.
Economic indicators show 30.7 percent of the population falls below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day. Public spending allocated to health is 2.6 percent, spending allocated to education is 4.7 percent, and public spending allocated to the military is 1.1 percent.
Women in Ethiopia tend to live longer than men, as the life expectancy of females is 105.2 percent. The literacy rate of women as of males from 2008 to 2012 is 58.9 percent. Enrolment ratios of females as a percent of males from 2008 to 2012 are higher, with primary schooling level being 90.9 percent and secondary being 86.7 percent. The percentage of contraceptive prevalence shows to be 28.6 percent. The maternal mortality from 2008 to 2012 was reported at 680, but was adjusted in 2010 lowering to 350, which surprised me.
The mortality rate for children under 5 years of age decreased significantly from 237 in 1970 to 68 in 2012. The total fertility rate from this time span also deceased from 7 to 4.6. There are many disparities between urban and rural areas in Ethiopia, with urban areas being more advanced. Birth registration from 2005 to 2015 differ with urban areas having a percentage of 28.9 while rural areas are shown at 4.9 percent. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV in females from 2008 to 2012 in rural areas is 18.7 percent while in urban areas it is 37.7 percent, which is pretty much double. Data for disparities by household wealth show the richest 20% have advantages over the poorest 20%, for example birth registration from 2005 to 2012 is 18.1 percent for the richest 20% while the birth registration is 2.6 percent for the poorest 20%. There is also a major difference when having a skilled attendant at birth. From 2008-2012, the percentage of having skilled health personal for the richest 20% was 45.6 percent while the percentage for the poorest 20% was 1.7 percent.