The country I am choosing to study is Yemen. After doing some research on countries with the lowest equality for women and women education, Yemen was found to be at the bottom. A country that has been at war for the past three years has gone through much turmoil, and the women seem to be forgotten.
In 2012, Yemen had a population of 23,852,400. From 1990-2012, the population was growing at 3.2% rate. However, it was predicted to go down to 2% from 2012-2030. When looking at a 1.2% decrease in population growth, the question of “why” must be asked. It looks like from 1990-2012, the crude birth rate went down from 51.6 to 31.5. With a 20.1 decrease in birth rate, this could reveal why the population growth is being stunted.
With a GNI per capita (in US dollars) of $1,110, it is clear that individuals are struggling to get by. 17.5% of the population is below the international poverty line of $1.25 (US dollars). Though 5.2% of the GDP is spent on education, when looking at the education status of Yemen, most of it seems to be going towards education for males.
Life for women seems difficult, especially as they grow older and while they are pregnant. Literacy rates are just above 50% at 59.1% and as women go from Primary to Secondary education enrollment, the percentage drops from 81.6% to 63.4%. What is most shocking is the antenatal care and the delivery care. Overall, women are cut short when it comes to healthcare during pregnancy, only 47% of women have at least one visit to the doctor’s during their pregnancy and just 35.7% have a skilled attendant at birth.
Males are more likely to get enrolled in school (at pre-primary, primary, and secondary levels) as opposed to females. The literacy rate for males and females indicate this discrepancy; 96.4% of male youth are literate, compared to the 76% of female youth.
Progress within Yemen is slow – from GDP per capita annual growth to fertility rates, there does not seem to be much significant progress. However, one area that seems to be doing better is the Under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR). From 2000 to 2012, the rate went down from 97 to 60.
Living in an urban context in Yemen is definitely a lot better than living in a rural context. From sanitation facilities to skilled attendants at birth, the percentages and ratios are much higher in urban settings. One striking similarity was the lack of HIV knowledge for females ages 15-24. Only 4% in urban settings are knowledgable about HIV, while in rural settings, a very low 0.6% are aware of HIV.
In Yemen, it seems as though being rich leaves a significant impact in life quality and expectancy. From HIV knowledge to having a a skilled attendant at birth, there is a wide chasm between being in the top 20% and the bottom 20%.