Violence against women is gender-discriminatory, that is to say, the perpetrator is violent because the object of violence is a woman, or because of the concept of a patriarchal society. According to the information, I have consulted, there are many types of violence. Individuals engage in violence through rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, abandonment of female infants, prenatal sex selection, pregnancy violence and concentration violence. In addition, some bad traditions and customs are also aimed at female violence, such as female genital mutilation, deception, and forced marriage. The state uses violence in the form of war rape, sexual violence, and sexual slavery during wartime.
In recent years, the issue of domestic violence has increasingly become a topic of common concern to the general public in China. Its production has its deep historical roots, social background, and economic reasons. Violence against women, especially intimate partner violence and sexual violence, is a major public health issue and a violation of women’s human rights. Violence can have a negative impact on the physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health of women.
For my country(China), For my country, the cause of domestic violence is mainly because the long-standing thought of male superiority is deep-rooted. In the men-centered slave society and feudal society, women are basically in a tragic situation with only obligations and no rights. Reflected in the husband and wife, mainly manifested as men openly implemented, husband the right to rule. From the history of China, in the family and social life, the wife is in an oppressed, enslaved position. They are not equal civil subjects at all, women have almost become men’s accessories and private property. Women who live in this historical context also believe that they should accept the husband’s control, no rebellion consciousness. So many women silently endure the violence of their husbands.
Although after the founding of New China, the Chinese government legally banned the traditional male-centered mindset and women’s status has been improved as never before, many still believe that husbands have the privilege of ruling and dominating their wives.
China is an ethnically diverse country. In addition to the Han majority, there are 55 official groups, accounts for about 9% of the total population. Hui Muslims represent the largest of the 10 different Muslim ethnic groups, are widely dispersed throughout China, but have a significant presence in Quighai province in West China. In view of the Hui Muslim tradition, the Hui Muslim women in the family and political, economic and education status is low.”According to Zheng’s (2010) analysis, the 2005 national census data indicate that Hui women are most likely to never have had any education (25%) compared with Hui men (12%), and Han men (4%) and women (12%). “(Niu, 2015) Therefore, Hui women are very vulnerable to violence, even they are unable to resist. “First, eight Hui women in this study describe the violence as “fate”—as an unpleasant and yet unavoidable part of their culture as Chinese and as Muslims. Acculturated to accept this “fact,” they believed that they could not control their own lives, but had to accept that this was their destiny having to obey their husbands.”(Niu, 2015)
Data from interviews with 14 women who lived in west China examine the dynamic nature of domestic violence they have experienced. There is one example of the interviews. “Ma Xiuxiu was 48 years old. Her husband physically abused her since she married at 22 years of age. Her husband had a bad temper and controlled her. As long as they quarreled, he beat her:
We believe in different religious sects of Islam. He thinks that I am wrong. As a wife, I should obey him. I should believe what he believes. I disagree. Therefore, he beats me. One day last year, I had not told him before I went out for a while. I came back home after a couple of hours and he beat me. He beat me until I could not stand up. He said it was a requirement of Islam. I had no rights to go out if I did not ask for his “kouhuan” [religious permission]. After a few days, I called 119 for help. They [the police] asked him to pay a penalty.”(Niu, 2015) So we can see that domestic violence is a private matter rooted in the patriarchal influence of male dominance within these systems.
Similar to other cultures, violence against Muslim Muslim women includes a range of violent acts ranging from verbal threats to physical and psychological abuse. Physical abuse is the most common form of violence reported, causing bodily injuries, including bruises, finger injuries, internal injuries. In some cases, the husband will also use weapons.
The above data show that domestic violence in China has the characteristics of long-term, universal, serious and form diversity. The spread of domestic violence not only has it seriously devastated women’s physical and mental health and violated their personal freedom, life and health, reputation and personal dignity, but also shake the peace and happiness of marriage and family. In turn, it disrupts the order and stability of society. Today, in the rule of law and the importance of human rights, we should and very much need to take effective measures to stop domestic violence and effectively protect women’s rights and interests.
Niu, Xuan, and Karen A. J. Laidler. “Understanding Domestic Violence Against Muslim Women in China.” Feminist Criminology, vol. 10, no. 1, 2015, pp. 92-112.