Fredrickson concluded that racism as “one ethnic group or historical collectivity dominates, excludes, or seeks to eliminate another on the basis of differences that it believes are hereditary and unalterable”(Fredrickson, 2003). Racism is a self-centered attitude which deems that racial differences determine the development of the human culture and history. The first feature is the sense of superiority one ethnic group hold to other groups. The superiority may come from physical appearance such as skin color. The second feature is that the urge to eliminate other groups which are different from them.
European Enlightenment was the time when ethnologists began to divide humans beings into different races. It is when the the concept of race starts to grow until to day. In the beginning of 19th century, scientists and anthropologists starts to look at the race issue differently since the difference is pretty small biologically. While at the same time, Samuel Morton, George Gliddon and other American scientists put forward several theories that white people are more worthy than other skin color people. They say that the skull of the white people is the largest thus white people are most intelligent race. This is ridiculous because the bigger skull does not mean more intelligent, furthermore, intelligence do not determine people’s level.
By engaging this weeks lectures and readings, I do agree that “Modern biological science and the concept of race grew up hand-in-hand.”. The concept of race and modern biological science are all in service of people. They do cooperate with each other. Modern biological science could destroy the “differences”, it could also be used as evidence for racism. The problem here is how we interpret them.