Racism is the process of one group discriminating against another group solely based on a few characteristics, notably religion or skin color. Racism usually begins when one group who, by circumstance, has a higher position in the social hierarchy starts acting discriminatory against another group for a variety of reasons. It could be out of unwarranted fear based in xenophobia. It could also be used as a scapegoat to problems by shifting the blame to another group. Or it could be a tactic to elevate oneself above others in an attempt to secure or gain new power. Whatever the motivation may be, racism always stems from ignorance or maliciousness.
The idea that modern biological science and the concept of race grew up hand-in-hand is partially true, but a very misleading statement. The statement suggests that biological science has helped prove that separate races exist. While research in both categories has been ongoing simultaneously throughout history, and do often crossover, biological science has in no way proved that there are biologically separate human races. Many researches with racial biases have tried using biology to prove that these separate races exist, such as with Morton’s skull measuring, but none such research has proven anything of the sorts. In fact, it could be argued that as more research is done, specifically in the fields of genetics and genomics, it is becoming more and more apparent just how similar all human beings are. All humans share 99.5% of their DNA with all other humans. It’s difficult to argue that human beings can be separated into races or subspecies when all humans are so evidently similar.