In my opinion, primary characteristics are the most important. Secondary characteristics are important as well, however I do not think that they are completely necessary for a civilization if I was forced to choose between the two. For example, one of the Primary characteristics, state authority, is very important to a civilization or a state. Without a system of decision making, which is the power, and without a way to enforce the decisions made, which is the authority, the state would be in complete chaos. People need a leader and for someone to tell them what to do and to represent the different opinions of the masses. People in a state also need to know that they are safe and protected (and that the state is not in chaos) and criminals need to know that there will be repercussions for their actions. Agriculture, another primary characteristic, is also extremely important for a civilization or state. I think that it is the foundation of a civilization. Intensive agriculture allows for a stable and steady food supply and settlement in a single location. It also helps with trading with other regions as well; some forms of agriculture can be used as dyes which can be used and/or traded, which boosts the economy. Branching off from my last point, it is important for a state to have a complex economy, another primary characteristic. Another important primary characteristic is that the state is Urban; meaning that it is large and dense. It must be large and dense in order for neighborhoods to be established, public and government buildings, etc. If the state was not dense, everything would be spread apart, people would not feel as if they were a part of a community and they may begin to stop listening to their ruler. There would be no businesses thus no stimulation of the economy. As I mentioned earlier, secondary characteristics are important for a civilization as well. Characteristics such as a state religion (and its associated arts; calendrics and astrology) organizes daily life and brings people together. Mass production of goods shows that a civilization is specialized. Tribute or taxation are also really important secondary characteristics because the money is used to support the economy and the region as a whole. Epidemic Disease and Malnutrition show that the state is unified and helps people become resistant to other strains of diseases which makes the state stronger health wise. Concluding, I think that primary characteristics are much more important than secondary characteristics.