During this week’s reading I was intrigued by the various differences of the Predynastic civilizations Buto-Ma’adi culture of Lower Eqypt and Naqada culture of Upper Egypt. Although these cities were approximately 600km away from each other along the Nile they exhibited differences in culture, settlement size, economic trade and ceramic traditions. Buto-Ma’adi areas showed less evidence of major settlement and the burial sites were far fewer than in Naqada.
The Buto-Ma’adi settlement sites were better preserved while the Naqada settlement sites were not and their culture was greatly depicted through excavation of burial sites. Through analysis of burial sites the differences between the cultures became apparent. Buto-Ma’adi sites were very simple and showed little cultural significance. This differed from the Naqada burial sites which showed higher levels of social complexity and varying social levels. These differences in burial sites represent a continuation of the Predynastic culture into ones that were more material based, evident in the Naqada culture. The materials being referred to are agricultural items, ceramics, pottery, mud-brick architecture and others that were used to develop a trade between civilizations.
As depicted earlier there were many differences between Buto-Ma’adi and Naqada cultures, however even in the Naqada culture itself there were varying degrees of social complexity. In the Naqada area there were several cemeteries, the Great New Race cemetery, Cemetery B and Cemetery T. These began with very small burial sites with few grave goods ranging to the social elite burial sites of Cemetery T which possessed many grave goods and any artifacts.
As I continued to read more about these cultures I found it very interesting to find that from burial sites archaeologist were able to depict so much of the society and the status of the burial inhabitants. Although not much has been preserved and many areas have been tarnished through robbery and weathering we can still learn a great deal about historic cultures from archeology.