W7 Blog: Alexander the Great

In all of my years of schooling, from kindergarten until my fourth year of college, I have never had an in-depth lesson on Alexander the Great. When he came up in lecture this week as an important detail of the Ptolomaic Period, I knew I wanted to take the opportunity to educate myself a bit more. There are two parts of his story that interest me most: how he was welcomed by the Egyptians as he conquered their land and the mystery of his death.

During fall of 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered Egypt. It marked the start of the Ptolomaic period, which was the Greek period in Egyptian history. Neither the Egyptians nor the Persians resisted his rule. There was even a festival in celebration of his arrival, thrown in Greek style by the Egyptians. He had freed them from Persian rule, and his actions were greatly appreciated. He was also honored because he was believed to be the son of Amun Re, an extremely important god in Egyptian theology. Amun Re was known as the sun god as well as the, “God of Kings and King of Gods,” (MCA). Although he was only present in Egypt for about six months, he left a lasting impression. He pushed into action many reforms and connected the Egyptians with Greek society. The next time he was in Egypt was after his own death, in which his body was transported by carriage to be buried.

To this day, the question about Alexander’s cause of death of remains unanswered. Some researchers suggest that the possibility of poison or an infection, as well as other causes. Recently, West Nile Virus has been suggested. After two weeks of suffering from a raging fever, whatever had been bothering him was enough to kill him, and he passed away on June 7th, 323 B.C. at just 32 years of age. His illness was so quick and unexpected that he did not even get the chance to appoint his successor to rule over the Macedonian Empire.


Eternal Egypt (2005). Alexander the Great in Egypt. Retrieved from: http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.module&story_id=&language_id=1&module_id=330&text=text

Historyofmacedonia.org (2001). Alexander the Great: Alexander of Macedonia Biography. Retrieved from: http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/AlexandertheGreat.html

Marr, John S., Calisher, Charles, H. (December, 2003) Retrieved from: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/9/12/03-0288_article.htm

MCA Egypt (2007). Amun Ra. Retrieved from: http://www.mcaegypt.org/amunra.html


Week 7 Blog – Emma Greene

I have always found the decline of the Ptolemaic Era very interesting, and I actually wrote a research paper about this subject just last year. However, the focus of that paper was just on Cleopatra and her dealings with Rome. I want to take this opportunity to look at the earlier rulers of the Ptolemaic Period.

After Alexander the Great’s rule, obviously there was a little bit of confusion as to who would rule next. That honor fell to Ptolemy Soter, who was actually a close friend of Alexander the Great. Under his rule and the rule of the pharaohs after him, there began to be a lot of mixing of Egyptian and Greek aspects of life. In terms of bureaucracy, Greeks held the majority of the positions of power in Egyptian society. There were also designated communities for specific peoples, like the Greeks , Jews and even the Egyptians. The economy of Egypt changed as well; it was still agricultural in nature, but the invention of the water wheel made it easier to manipulate the waters of the Nile to be able to get water to more fields of wheat. Wheat would continue to be one of Egypt’s main exports, but the type of wheat exported did change. Instead of emmer wheat, which had been used practically since Predynastic times, the Egyptians started planting free threshing wheat, which did not need as much tending and made it easier to extract the wheat with just a gentle threshing, as opposed to the strenuous ritual associated with emmer wheat. The Egyptians still did extensive trade, mainly via sea routes, and its main export was papyrus, which had been used in ancient Egypt for centuries as a writing implement. Gold mines were also utilized, but not as much gold was mined compared to before the Ptolemaic period. Religion also changed drastically; a new triad of deities combined the powerful Egyptian and Greek gods  Serapis, Isis and Herpocrates, and the temple was actively supported right up until the end of the Ptolemaic period.

Week #7: Where are the Egyptians?

A common theme in this week, as well as throughout Egyptian history in general, is the placement of non Egyptians in ruling positions.  It makes me curious as to whether or not the ancient Egyptians ever had the thought, “Egypt for Egyptians”?  The fact that the Ptolemies refused to even reproduce with actual Egyptians is kind of ridiculous.

We know that pharaohs  were supposed to be descendents of the gods or in the very least chosen by the gods, and that due to their divine connections their authority was to be absolute and unquestionable. All of that helps explain why the Egyptians would blindly follow their ancient rulers, but the Greeks, like the Hyksos, were not Egyptian.  This raises the question were the Egyptians also afraid of foreign gods?

Many non Egyptian ancient rulers of Egypt also chose to adopt certain cult practices such as the worship of Egyptian gods and deities in order to help the actual native Egyptians accept them.  This is one of the few reasons I can think of to understand or explain why the Ptolemies chose to intermarry brothers and sisters.

If the pharaoh is supposed to be a descendent of the gods, then that means his blood is already supposedly pure.  If the Ptolemies were attempting to convince the Egyptians of their divine birth right, then they would have to demonstrate in some way their blood’s superiority.  Since fighting could backfire and any other ‘tough man’ competition could ultimately lead to the family’s demise, one of the easiest ways to show their superiority was to seclude themselves.

Another possible reason would be for protection of their royal status.  By marrying their siblings, the Ptolemies could effectively defeat the inner-family struggling that commonly plagued other kingdoms as well as discourage foreign diplomats of political marriages.  If the Ptolemies had allowed foreign marriage or marriage with outsiders of the family, it would have allowed an opportunity for an empire take over.

Week 7: Trade

During the late dynasties, once the Greek began to enter Egypt and start to seize control, trade (already having been existed in Ancient Egypt) soon became a necessity. Trade was taking place overseas. I became interested in the fact that large vessels were setting sail. Have we recovered any ancient Egyptian ships that were en route carrying goods? If so, this could show us just exactly what they were trading and with whom? Did they have multiple ships or did they choose one ship to move from port to port? Trade was of considerable importance to the Ptolemies, and the establishment of ports on the Egyptian Red Sea coast enabled expeditions over large areas.  The two most important ports appeared to have been Berenice and Myos Hormos.

Bernice has been the subject of an excavation project, “one of the most important reasons for creating this new harbour was the need of the Ptolemies for elephants. These were used in the wars against the Seleucids in the Near East, who blocked the import of Indian elephants. The Ptolemies decided to catch African elephants in what now is eastern Sudan, Eritrea and Ethiopia and ship them over the Red Sea on special
ships (elephantagoi) in order to land them in southern Egypt and walk
them to the Nile valley (Byrnes, 2007).” This is just an example of one port that made up a popular trade route. Could there be possible ships that have not been recovered yet here? I tried to research ancient ships recovered in regard to this time frame and I had no luck. What I did find was that unfortunately most of the Ptolemaic layers of Berenice are still sealed beneath the Roman levels, which meant that at the moment there is very little known about the site at this time. Perhaps in the future we will know even more about trade that took place between ancient Egypt and overseas partners.



Byrnes, Andie. (2007). Ptolemaic, Roman and Byzantine. Retrieved from http://archaeology-easterndesert.com/html/graeco-roman.html

Blog #7- Alexandria

The city of Alexandria, created by Alexander the Great, really fascinated me this week as it has a distinctive history significant to the people of ancient Egypt that lived during the Hellenistic and Ptolemaic periods. This site is so special because of its representation of the historic events that occurred in association with Alexander the Great and his defeat of the Persian state. The Egyptians were not accepting of a ruler that was not native to their state and disapproved when the Persians invaded during the 27th Dynasty. Because of this, they were very fond of Alexander the Great when he liberated them from Persian control and shows that they would support anyone who opposed the Persians even if they were foreigners. As a result Alexander the Great was declared the son of Amun-Re by the oracle at the Temple of Amun at Siwa and was honored by the Egyptians.

Alexander the Great’s achievements are embodied by the city of Alexandria where it is renowned in Egypt for the art and monuments that are there, the centers of learning it has as well as the festival referred to as Ptolemaieia which is similar to the Olympics. The importance of the city only increases as it is the resting place of Alexander the Great’s body since it never made it back to Macedonia where he was originally from. He died at the age of 33 in 323 BC due to an illness which I’m sure he contracted due to his travels around the Mediterranean area. His appearance and accomplishments in the region started the integration of various communities and cultures in Egypt like the Greek, the Jewish and obviously the Egyptian especially during the Ptolemaic period of ancient Egypt. Throughout its history Alexandria has been a center for many political, cultural and religious features of Egypt and really exemplifies the Egyptian’s gratitude for Alexander the great’s successes  on behalf of their state.


Matt Salgot Week 7 Post

For the final blog post I wanted to examine the relationship that developed between the Greek world and Egypt. There are several key events that help to strengthen and develop this peaceful coexistence. The first of these is due to the activities of the Persian Empire. Both Greece and Egypt viewed Persian as a threat and this provided them with a mutual interest to support each other.This growing alliance can be seen from the shift of the Egyptian capital to the western portion of the Delta. In a sense this can be viewed as a shift in the main trade partners of Egypt. They were no longer as interested in trade with their neighbors to the east.

The second major event to shape this relations ship resulted from the empire building of Alexander the Great. With his help Egypt was freed from the Persian Empire and would become even more closely linked with the Greek world. Even before this liberation was completed Egypt was receiving military assistance from the Greeks as Greek citizens and mercenaries were become more common in the Egyptian army. The strength of the Persian Empire was great and this caused Egypt and other states to ban together in order to deal with such a powerful neighbor.

The last important factor was simply the death of Alexander the Great. With his death his recently created empire was divided up and Egypt would enter the Ptolemaic Period. Since Egypt was controlled by foreigners from the Greek World, the political and economic partners of Egypt would become focused on Greece. Also during this time Egypt increased its already massive agriculture yields and this made Egypt an important region to control or be allied with. This increased amount of wheat production resulted in Egypt conducting most of its trade in food stuffs and shifted away from trade in elite goods like gold.

Week 7 – The Legacy of the Last Pharaoh

It feels a bit odd to be posting the weekly blog this early but since I have three classes ending Thursday there is definitely no time to waste, eh? Anyway, this week’s materials ended with the mentioning of Cleopatra VII, the last Pharaoh of dynastic Egypt. The reading mentions a little bit about the tumultuous life of this female ruler, but there are many stories surrounding her rule that can be considered quite scandalous. Though her life ended in suicide in 30 BC, and with her death the transitioning of Egypt into a province of the Roman Empire, she was very successful in using her charm and wit to gain power among the other (male) figures in power at the time.

An important thing to mention is that Egypt did have female rulers, but it was necessary for them to have a male consort. The identity of Cleopatra’s mother is unknown, though she may have been the sister of her father. Similarly, when Cleopatra’s father died, she rose to power at the age of 18 and was forced to wed her 12 year old brother, a political situation that Cleopatra used to her advantage. She basically ignored him as co-ruler, which created much unrest and lead to her exile.

Cleopatra was not deterred. She used her wit and charm to become Julius Caesar’s lover, which gave her a political advantage and he returned her to her throne. At this point she married her youngest brother, who was 11 years of age, but had a son with Caesar named Cesarion (or Little Caesar). Caesar got stabbed though, and Cleopatra returned to Egypt. She later charmed yet another major figure, Marc Antony, which gave her political influence. This did not work out in their favor, however, for Marc Antony’s council did not approve of his affair and declared war on Egypt, and they were easily defeated. And so, the Roman Empire gained control of Egypt and Cleopatra died by the bite of an Egyptian cobra.


Chapter 10: The Greco-Roman Period


Week 6: Changes in Foreign Policy

Throughout ancient Egypt there have been shifts in foreign policy. From predynastic to the third intermediate period we have seen significant changes and similarities in political, cultural and religious aspects. In this weeks lecture we discussed in detail about the change of foreign policy during the New Kingdom. This has led me to try to assemble how foreign policy differs from the second intermediate period to that of the third.

The Middle Kingdom arose through military and political expansion initiated by a line of provincial rulers until that is when the Hyksos, of which we learned last week, were on the verge of controlling Egypt during the second intermediate period. When the Hyksos were eradicated a new dynasty emerged, which led to the rise of the New Kingdom. During the 18th Dynasty foreign policy was aggressive, offensive, and imperialistic. Response to the occupation of the Hyksos and reaction to the change in the greater political sphere on the Near East was taking place. In order to make sure Egypt would not undergo the same empowerment of outsiders, buffer zones were established. In the eyes of Egyptians now, enemies lay close. It is during the New Kingdom that the Amarna letters would shed light on Egyptian relations with others. They represented a new sense of diplomacy that had replaced the military campaigns of the early New Kingdom. Foreign policy of the New Kingdom shifted from being overtly militaristic and imperialistic in reaction from the Hyksos occupation to a wider politic-sphere. Not only does it shift from the Near East to a more diplomatic policy which was represented by Amarna letters but  as well as economic, which was represented by voyages and economic expeditions to Punt. At the end of the 18th Dynasty, the end of the Amarna period, significant social and religious, political and bureaucratic change had taken place. The administrative capital had moved back to Thebes and the economic power of the old cults of Amun restored. This all leads up to the third intermediate period which is not like any other intermediate periods. There are long periods of stability and chronic instability. It is here we see the development of the hereditary priesthood of Amun.


Watrall, Ethan. (2012). Lecture videos, Week 5 and 6.

Blog #6: Queen Nefertari

The Armana period brought many important changes. Evidence of Queen Nefertari is proof of the increasing religious role of the queen. She was the first wife of Ramses the Great, and although he had eight principle wives in total and over a hundred children, he always described Nefertari as the most beautiful and perhaps was his most beloved. The queen’s birth parents are a mystery to this day but it has been concluded that her family was a noble one. In 1312 B.C., her and Ramses married, and soon after she gave birth to their first son. In total, she had 11 children, a mix of boys and girls.

Nefertari’s importance goes far beyond being adored by Ramses. The abundance of images of the queen throughout Egypt as well as her noted titles are evidence of her role in religious and state affairs. It cannot be said for sure whether her personality had a major influence or strictly her title and affiliations but her importance is obvious despite the reasons. The most inspiring feature we have discovered is a temple located in the Valley of the Queens, west of the Nile and south of Thebes. Carved into the cliffs are two tombs, a smaller one for her and the larger for her husband. Ramses dedicated the temple to, “the Chief Queen Nefertari…for whom the sun shines,” and paid to cover its costs, according to an inscription.The inside is decorated with elaborate paintings of various colors, as well as relief carvings, a more difficult art in which the carvings pop out from the wall when the rest is cleared away.

The temple wasn’t all romance though. Another proposed function of the temple was propaganda. Ramses needed to stress his power and make it known. He did this by having four large statues of himself built at the front, surrounded by smaller statues of Queen Nefertari. The intimidating but magnificent structures provide an instant visual of the King’s political power, which is probably exactly what he was going for.


KingTutOne.com, (2005). Nefertari queen of Egypt. Retrieved from: http://www.kingtutone.com/queens/nefertari/

McDonald, John K., (1996). House of eternity: The tomb of Nefertari. Los Angelos: The J. Paul Getty Trust.

PBS, (Mar 15, 2006). Egypt’s golden empire: Nefertari. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/empires/egypt/newkingdom/nefertari.html



Matt Salgot Week 6 Post

For this week’s blog I wanted to discuss the different styles of architecture that existed during the New Kingdom. These styles of construction are the Royal construction projects and the urban construction of towns and cities. Both of these areas can help to elaborate on the overall well being of Egyptian society.

During the New Kingdom these is a shift away from constructing massive individual burials towards more communal burial sites, such as the Valley of the Kings. What was the purpose of this shift? One possible reason is simply Egypt could no longer afford or no longer wanted to put as much resources into the construction of pyramids. One solution for reducing expenditures on royal burials is to condense the royal family tomb at one location. By doing this the Egyptians could either reuse burial sites or expand on the existing chambers whenever a new member needed to be buried. By condensing the royal family to one site, the Valley of the Kings, this could also save resources involved with rituals. There would be one temple site for the burial complex instead of one temple per pyramid or burial site.

Thanks to the site of Deir el-Medina archaeologist are able to learn about the planning and construction of urban centers. Unlike our cities that are composed of separate buildings, these Egyptian centers were very condensed and many of the building were sharing walls. The closeness of these buildings shows that the Egyptians were able to maximize the living space in these dwellings. This site also shows that great care was taken when planing the layout of a city. Due to the harshness of this region of the world a poorly designed city could be devastating to the inhabitants. If cities were not planned right they could have problems with supply their population with food and water, along with other necessitates for a city to function. However, Deir el-Medina shows that the Egyptians took these and other conditions into consideration when designing their cities.