This week’s material really puts to perspective how quickly the rate at which the modern human evolved increased. In less time than it took for the improvements of stone tool from the lower paleolithic era to the middle paleolithic era, we have seen revolutions such as the agricultural revolution and urban revolution that take intelligence to a level never seen before by any other animal at any point in time. The agricultural revolution that later led to the urban revolution laid the premise for what was to come afterward, replacing the barbaric hunting and gathering system to a farming system that resembled our current society.
I believe that the emergence of agriculture eventually led to the rise of the state, since for the technological and societal developments to happen for a state to rise, there needs to be a lot of people to specialize in certain areas to create a societal system composed of people who can trade labor for goods and vice versa. And to organize a large quantity of people into a society with law and order, it is necessary to allocate power and authority to a government which leads to the rise of the state.
The cultural development that led to the rise of the state is the beginning of permanent settlements prefaced by the agricultural revolution. Like with any development the initial concept starts at a very barbaric level. The beginning of the neolithic era set the inevitable consequence of the rise of the state since the agricultural revolution let people permanently reside in an area. Likewise, permanent settlements led to craft specialization which led to a more complex society that closely resemble our modern system. And with a more complex society, people sought organization through developing law.
In our videos secondary evidence such as grinders and other heavy equipment were presented as evidence to the emergence of agriculture, since large tools could not be carried around easily during a hunt. Thus these heavy tools were evidence of agriculture, since heavy equipment such as grinders could process plant material better, and tools such as the one used to cut wheat became even more specialized for their specific task.
The emergence of agriculture closely resembles the rise of the state, where both phenomenons show the radical rate at which human intelligence evolved. The change from hunting and gathering to agriculture led to the development of tools exponentially more advanced than any found in any paleolithic era. The complexity of society and cultural behavior expanded so rapidly it surprises archaeologists even today. Same with the rise of the state after the urban revolution, the societal complexity got so great that a organization was needed to find order. Material goods and culture became even more advanced, and as generations passed by, the complexity in our tools and our society only continue to increase in complexity at a exponential rate.