After learning this course, I have the more new idea about the how do modern human come from and why the society looks like this now. The most important that I have more acknowledge about how “ancient human” transitioned from hunter and gathering model to the agriculture model. Agriculture model means that “ancient human” started to cultivate the plants and fungi and domesticated animals for food and fiber and other products.
In my opinion, not only agriculture led to the rise of the state, but also Domestication and sedentary communities both led to the rise of the state. Sedentary communities which mean that “ancient human” were year-round habitation in permanent settlements. Domestication is the process by which a taxon divergent from the original gene pool and develops traits desired by humans. Like Neolithic which is dating from 10KA to 4500/2000B.C. and it is the first era that transitioned from hunter and gathering communities to the agriculture subsistence and settlement.
For my own opinion why the “ancient human” developed the agriculture and led to the rise of the state. There are some reasons.
First, I think that at that period, the climate and the environment always changed. Such as the Atlantic depression shifting forced all the people to live together. When the temperature increased, some of the plants and animals will be extinction, “ancient people” should find new food and domesticated more animals to keep the basic life. The most safety way was planting by themselves and domesticating more animals for food, fiber, and other products. When they have their own products, human will be selling their own products to other people. There is the complexed trade were built up.
Second, at that time, “ancient people” have their own desired, too. How can they achieve and closed their desire? Development of agriculture was driven by ostentatious displays of the power. When some “ancient people” show own power, they can develop more technologies, and hired the workers and then give them foods instead of the salary. After this situation, it established the state roles which is the human be ranked and state authority. Also, Archeologists use the animals, plants and material culture to identify the emergence of agriculture and to identify the rise of the state. Like animals, archeologists distinct the morphology of the animals, outside natural range and the changes in demographic profile. Also, archeologists analysis the tools that made by the “ancient human” to identify the emergence of agriculture and to identify the rise of the state. So I thought the rise of the state has the stronger relationship with Agriculture.