During the Post Glacial period, a period known as the Holocene, the climate started changing It started getting warmer and sea levels started rising. A large part of their food source started dying. Megafauna, and some plants and animals became extinct . This was part of a large extinction event that made it so new technologies for food needed to be created for their survival. They had to change what they were eating because what they were use to hunting started to become scarce. They developed communities that were permanent year round, started domesticating Animals and plants to develop traits that were needed and were desired, and started cultivating domesticated animals, plants, and fungi for food other products. When Archeaologists look for the emergence of Agriculture they are looking for Four things. The first are animals. They are looking to see if the animals are outside their natural range. If so then its because they have been herded away most likely by humans. They are also looking at their bones to see if it has changes in its demographic profile. This meaning when being compared to a wild animal the domesticated one will not look the same. Its skull shape is different, there are reductions in , if it has horns, it s horns, bones, body size, teeth, and jaw. Also the size of the herd of animals would change. there will be more wild ones then domesticated ones, the birth rate would go down. The second thing they are looking for are domesticated plants to see if they have changes in their morphology, being that the plants, compared to the same but wild plant, was grown or modified for the need of the people. the plants would be stronger. The Third thing they are looking for is Material Culture. They developed tools that they used to cut plants. It was a tool called a Sickle Sheen. It was used when the person wanted to repeatedly cut plants and cultivate them. The Last thing that Archealogist are looking for are Grinding stones, These were used to intensely process plant material by grinding them on a flat stone with a very heavy stone.
I do believe that the emergence of agriculture eventually led to the development of state. This is because Populations started to get bigger and there was need for more and more food to sustain the capacity. There was also a need for more food because of people with power throwing big feasts which required more food. There needed to be State , meaning that there needed to be a social system, with a complex economy , stratification, state authority and specialization.
The emergence of state was through Irrigation systems, urbanization, and advancements in trade technology. The emergence of agriculture was more a developments of ways of domesticating plants and animals for survival due to change in climate and extinction., the emergence of state happened due to advances in social life and technologies to run a systematic population.