These last lectures covered the topics of how species grew and advanced in different ways to increase their ways of living. The Neolithic culture began to develop agriculture and eventually a rise of a state. This Neolithic Period of changes lasted from 10000 to 2000 KA and it was during this time that the ability to farm came about. This is a very significant change to what species had been doing. Agriculture allowed early hominids to not have to go out and hunt and gather and rely on those outside resources to survive. They had to move with the food in many instances. So, when they found out that they could grow and farm food, it was incredibly useful in order to guarantee better survival. They didn’t have to follow animals anymore and could stay put. Of course, they still had animals to hunt, but farming was an alternative. In my opinion, this new step helped create the rise of states. With the ability to farm, they didn’t have to be constantly moving. They could live permanently, which would draw others to as well. Societies could grow and trade their goods and interact with different cultures, therefore leading to more growth overall. To show that there were societies and states created, there were three categories that showed just how the agriculture life began. The first one is animal remains. Animal remains (bones) and the second category, plant fossils were often found in and around where there were early hominid communities that utilized agriculture. They were able to go beyond hunting and gathering to feed themselves, and the fossils were there to prove it. The last category is the types of tools that were found. Hominids began to create tools that would have been used for farming and specialized just for that. Tools such as shovels were discovered, which would be beneficial to a farm. These tools were coveted as they were essential to keeping up with a farm. Overall, the early hominids were growing with the earth. They were becoming smarter and figuring out better, more efficient ways to live and thrive. They were able to lose their old hunting and gathering ways in order to create more stable communities and even trade with others. Through agriculture they could now have more time to focus on the growth of societies, leading to the rise of the states. I think it was because of agriculture that communities/states were created and maintained.