The Alliance

During the Second Intermediate period there was an alliance between the Hyksos of Avaris in northern Egypt and the people of Kerma in middle Egypt because of archaeological/historical findings.  Both had cultures that showed they were outsiders.  Interestingly their cultures resembled each other and were adaptive to the Egyptian culture.

The Hyksos had methods that were similar to that of the Middle Bronze Age Syria-Palestine.  This allowed for a connection to be made about where these peoples’ roots were from and who they may have traded with.  The power of trading continuously comes up in the Egyptian history.  During the Predynastic Period the Upper Egyptian culture slowly spread and conquered Lower Egypt.  In a similar way that is what the Syria-Palenstine people may have been trying to do.  During the reign of the Hyksos, Egypt did expand some reaching farther into Asia and the culture began to merge.  The time when this transition occured most is unclear. There is evidence of 13th Dynasty Eygptian kings with Asiatic employers found at Tell el-Dab’a through the tombs of the employees that have animal burials.  Later, during the 15th Dynasty, burials were found in Avaris with young female remains. This strongly suggest that they were sacrificed which is a very un-Egyptian practice. The exact origins of such methods are suspected to be of southwest Asia.

Interestingly, in Kerma a similar sight was found within the burial methods.  A man was buried with a herd of sheep and seven sacrificed children.  The burial practice of having scarifical animals and young children is not Egyptian.  As mentioned before this is thought to be Asiatic.  Moreover, the people of this region were probably of similar heritage as the Hyksos.  Their alliance with each other makes sense even though quite some distance separated them.  There is evidence that they were not fond of the Upper Egyptian Theban rulers.  An excuvation at Kerma uncovered a 15th Dynasty Hyksos king seal.  Could Kerma have been a secondary state of the Hyksos?

The invasion of these thought to be Asiatic people is quite interesting.  The land that they decided to conquer as their own is also interesting and shows that they were skillful in their planning.  The Delta is a very rich area as well as the region that the city of Kerma is located on.  Through archaeological findings of these regions as well as that of Syria-Palenstine regions, it has been concluded that the people had multiple similarities.  Those people that resided on Egyptain land were more likely integrate this culture into Egyptain practices.  The merge caused many changes for the occupied areas and helped shaped a new path for Egypt.